Selasa, 03 November 2009


Sex Pistols

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The Sex Pistols were the first popular punk group in Britain. They were only together for two years in the late 1970s and they were known for their rowdy behavior more than their music. The music they made gave many new artists a big influence on their music, mostly in the alternative music and punk scenes. Members in the band: Johnny Rotten- vocals, Paul Cook- drums, Steve Jones- guitar, Glen Matlock- bass. Sid Vicious later replaced Matlock on bass. They recorded only one studio album, called Never Mind the Bollocks - Here's the Sex Pistols. One of their most famous songs is Anarchy In The UK



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search
A pistol.

A pistol is a type of gun that is small and can be used with only one hand. Many pistols are used for defending yourself. They are usually smaller and lighter than most guns, like rifles, which makes them useful for hiding and carrying around. They also have shorter barrels.

Pistols usually only fire one shot every time you pull the trigger. Some special pistols, called machine pistols, can fire more than one at a time. Some famous pistols are the Colt M1911 and the Beretta 92.

Pistols were not commonly used in the western United States during the 1800s. The first commercially successful pistol was the Borchardt C-93. Designed in 1893 and became available in 1894.

[change] Other pages


M1911 pistol

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United States Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911
Mid-1945 produced M1911A1 U.S. Army semi-automatic pistol by Remington Rand. This one was re-built by Anniston Army Depot, October 1972, and carries the ANAD 1072 stamp. The cartridges shown are the .45 ACP (left) and 7.65 mm Browning/.32 ACP (right).
M1911A1 made by Remington Rand
Type Pistol
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1911–present
Used by See Users
Wars As official Service pistol: World War I, World War II, Korean War, and Vietnam War
Other: Gulf War, War in Afghanistan, and Iraq War
Production history
Designer John Browning
Designed 1911[1] & 1927 (A1)
Number built Over 2 million
Variants M1911A1,[1] RIA Officers
Weight 2.44 lb (1,105 g) empty, w/ magazine (FM 23–35, 1940)[1]
Length 8.25 in (210 mm)[1]
Barrel length 5.03 in (127 mm), Government model;[1]

4.25 in (108 mm), Commander model;
3.5 in (89 mm), Officer's ACP model

Cartridge .45 ACP, .38 Super
Action Short recoil operation[1]
Muzzle velocity 830 ft/s (253 m/s)
Feed system 7 rounds (standard-capacity magazine),[1] +1 in chamber

The M1911 is a single-action, semi-automatic, magazine-fed, recoil-operated handgun chambered for the .45 ACP cartridge.[1] It was designed by John M. Browning, and was the standard-issue side arm for the United States armed forces from 1911 to 1985, and is still carried by some U.S. forces. It was widely used in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. Its formal designation as of 1940 was Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911 for the original Model of 1911 or Automatic Pistol, Caliber .45, M1911A1 for the M1911A1, adopted in 1924. The designation changed to Pistol, Caliber .45, Automatic, M1911A1 in the Vietnam era.[1] In total, the United States procured around 2.7 million M1911 and M1911A1 pistols during its service life.

The M1911 is the most well-known of John Browning's designs to use the short recoil principle in its basic design. Besides the pistol being widely copied itself, this operating system rose to become the pre-eminent type of the 20th century and of nearly all modern centerfire pistols. It is popular with civilian shooters in competitive events such as IDPA and IPSC shooting.



[edit] History

[edit] Early history and adoption

The M1911 pistol originated in the late 1890s, as a search for a suitable self-loading (or semi-automatic) handgun, to replace the variety of revolvers then in service.[2] The United States of America was adopting new firearms at a phenomenal rate; several new handguns and two all-new service rifles (the M1892/96/98 Krag and M1895 Navy Lee), as well as a series of revolvers by Colt and Smith & Wesson for the Army and Navy were adopted just in that decade. The next decade would see a similar pace, including the adoption of several more revolvers and an intensive search for a self-loading pistol that would culminate in official adoption of the M1911 after the turn of the decade.

Hiram S. Maxim had designed a self-loading pistol in the 1880s, but was preoccupied with machine guns. Nevertheless, the application of his principle of using bullet energy to reload led to several self-loading pistols in the 1890s. The designs caught the attention of various militaries, each of which began programs to find a suitable one for their forces. In the U.S., such a program would lead to a formal test at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century.

During the end of 1899 and start of 1900, a test of self-loading pistols was conducted, which included entries from Mauser (the C96 "Broomhandle"), Mannlicher (the Steyr Mannlicher M1894), and Colt (the Colt M1900).[2]

This led to a purchase of 1,000 DWM Luger pistols, chambered in 7.65 mm Luger, a bottlenecked cartridge. These would go on field trials but ran into some issues, especially in regard to stopping power. Other governments had also made similar complaints, which resulted in DWM producing an enlarged version of the round, the 9mm Parabellum (known in current military parlance as the 9x19mm NATO), a necked-up version of the 7.65 mm round. Fifty of these were tested as well by the U.S. Army in 1903.

General William Crozier became Chief of Ordnance of the Army in 1901.

In response to problems encountered by American units fighting Moro guerrillas during the Philippine-American War, the then-standard .38 Long Colt revolver was found to be unsuitable for the rigors of jungle warfare, particularly in terms of stopping power, as the Moros had very high battle morale and frequently used drugs to inhibit the sensation of pain.[3] The U.S. Army briefly reverted to using the M1873 single-action revolver in .45 Colt caliber, which had been standard during the last decades of the 19th century; the heavier bullet was found to be more effective against charging tribesmen.[4] The problems with the .38 Long Colt led to the Army shipping new single action .45 Colt revolvers to the Philippines in 1902. It also prompted the then-Chief of Ordnance, General William Crozier, to authorize further testing for a new service pistol.[4]

Following the 1904 Thompson-LaGarde pistol round effectiveness tests, Colonel John T. Thompson stated that the new pistol "should not be of less than .45 caliber" and would preferably be semi-automatic in operation.[4] This led to the 1906 trials of pistols from six firearms manufacturing companies (namely, Colt, Bergmann, Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM), Savage Arms Company, Knoble, Webley, and White-Merril).[4]

Of the six designs submitted, three were eliminated early on, leaving only the Savage, Colt, and DWM designs chambered in the new .45ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol) cartridge.[4] These three still had issues that needed correction, but only Colt and Savage resubmitted their designs. There is some debate over the reasons for DWM's withdrawal—some say they felt there was bias and that the DWM design was being used primarily as a "whipping boy" for the Savage and Colt pistols,[5] though this does not fit well with the earlier 1900 purchase of the DWM design over the Colt and Steyr entries. In any case, a series of field tests from 1907 to 1911 were held to decide between the Savage and Colt designs.[4] Both designs were improved between each testing over their initial entries, leading up to the final test before adoption.[4]

Among the areas of success for the Colt was a 6,000 round test at the end of 1910 attended by its designer, John Browning. The Colt gun passed with flying colors, having no malfunctions, while the Savage designs had 37.[4]

[edit] Service history

Comparison of government-issue M1911 and M1911A1 pistols
M15 General Officers adopted by the U.S. Army in the 1970s for issue to Generals.

Following its success in trials, the Colt pistol was formally adopted by the Army on March 29, 1911, thus gaining its designation, M1911 (Model of 1911). It was adopted by the Navy and Marine Corps in 1913. Originally manufactured only by Colt, demand for the firearm in World War I saw the expansion of manufacture to the government-owned Springfield Armory.

Battlefield experience in the First World War led to some more small external changes, completed in 1924. The new version received a modified type classification, M1911A1. Changes to the original design were minor and consisted of a shorter trigger, cutouts in the frame behind the trigger, an arched mainspring housing, a longer grip safety spur (to prevent hammer bite), a wider front sight, a shorter spur on the hammer, and simplified grip checkering by eliminating the "Double Diamond" reliefs.[4] Those unfamiliar with the design are often unable to tell the difference between the two versions at a glance. No significant internal changes were made, and parts remained interchangeable between the two.

Working for the U.S. Ordnance Office, David Marshall Williams developed a .22 training version of the M1911 using a floating chamber to give the .22 long rifle rimfire recoil similar to the .45 version.[4] As the Colt Service Ace, this was available both as a handgun and as a conversion kit for .45 M1911 pistols.[4]

[edit] World War II

World War II and the years leading up to it created a great demand. During the war, about 1.9 million units were procured by the U.S. Government for all forces, production being undertaken by several manufacturers, including Remington Rand (900,000 produced), Colt (400,000), Ithaca Gun Company (400,000), Union Switch & Signal (50,000), Singer (500), the Springfield Armory and Rock Island Arsenal. So many were produced that, after 1945, the government did not order any new pistols, and simply used existing parts inventories to "arsenal refinish" guns when necessary. This pistol was favored by US military personnel.[6]

Before World War II, a small number of Colts were produced under license at the Norwegian weapon factory Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk (these Colts were known as "Kongsberg Colt"). During the German occupation of Norway the production continued. These pistols are highly regarded by modern collectors, with the 920 examples stamped with Nazi Waffenamt codes being the most sought after. German forces also used captured M1911A1 pistols, using the designation "Pistole 660(a)".[7] The M1911 pattern also formed the basis for the Argentine Ballester-Molina and certain Spanish Star and Llama pistols made after 1922.

[edit] Replacement for most uses

After World War II, the M1911 continued to be a mainstay of the United States Armed Forces in the Korean War and the Vietnam War and was even used during Desert Storm in specialized U.S. Army units. It has gone on to see service in both Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, with U.S. Army Special Forces Groups and Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance Companies.

However, by the late 1970s the M1911A1 was acknowledged to be showing its age. Under political pressure from NATO to conform to the NATO-standard pistol cartridge, the US Air Force's Joint Service Small Arms Program was run to select a new semi-automatic pistol using the NATO-standard 9mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. After trials, the Beretta 92S-1 was chosen. This result was contested by the Army which subsequently ran its own competition (the XM9 trials) in 1981 which eventually led to the official adoption of the Beretta 92F on January 14, 1985. By the later 1980s production was ramping up despite a controversial XM9 retrial and a separate XM10 reconfirmation that was boycotted by some entrants of the original trials, cracks in the frames of some pre-M9 Beretta-produced pistols, and also despite a problem with slide separation using higher than specified pressure rounds that resulted in injuries to some US Navy special forces service members. This last resulted in an updated model that includes additional protection for the user, the 92FS, and updates to the ammunition used.

By the early 1990s, most M1911A1s had been replaced by the M9, though a limited number remain in use by special units. The United States Marine Corps in particular were noted for continuing the use of M1911 pistols for selected personnel in MEU(SOC) and reconnaissance units (though the USMC also purchased over 50,000 M9 handguns). For its part, the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) issued a requirement for a .45 ACP handgun (Offensive Handgun Weapon System (OHWS) trials). This resulted in the Heckler & Koch OHWS becoming the MK23 Mod 0 Offensive Handgun Weapon System (beating a Colt OHWS, a much modified M1911). Dissatisfaction with the Beretta M9's stopping power has actually promoted re-adoption of handguns based on the M1911 design (along with other handguns) among USSOCOM units in recent years, though the M9 remains predominant both within SOCOM and in the US military in general.

[edit] Current users

Military and law enforcement organizations in the United States and other countries continue to use (often modified) M1911A1 pistols including Marine Force Recon, Los Angeles Police Department S.W.A.T. and L.A.P.D. S.I.S., the FBI Hostage Rescue Team, F.B.I. regional S.W.A.T. teams, and 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment—Delta (Delta Force). The Tacoma, Washington Police Department made history in 2001 by becoming the first metropolitan police department in nearly 50 years to adopt the M1911 as its official carry weapon.[8] The Tacoma Police Department selected the Kimber Pro Carry II or Pro Carry II HD as optional, department supplied weapons available to its officers.[8]

A basic version of Smith & Wesson's SW1911 with user-installed Pachmayr grips.
M1911A1 by Springfield Armory (contemporary remake of WWII G.I. Model, Parkerized).

The M1911A1 is also extremely popular among the general public in the United States for practical and recreational purposes. The pistol is commonly used for concealed carry (thanks in part to a single-stack magazine, which makes for a thinner pistol; thus easier to conceal), personal defense, target shooting, and competition. Numerous aftermarket accessories allow users to customize the pistol to their liking. There are a growing number of manufacturers of M1911-type pistols and the model continues to be quite popular for its reliability, simplicity, and patriotic appeal. Various tactical, target, and compact models are available. Price ranges from a low end of $250 for an imported model to more than $3,000 for the best competition or tactical models from such as those by Wilson Combat and Les Baer.

Due to an increased demand for M1911 pistols among Army Special Operations units, who are known to field a variety of M1911 pistols, the Army Marksmanship Unit began looking to develop a new generation of M1911s and launched the M1911-A2 project in late 2004.[9] The goal was to produce a minimum of seven variants with various sights, internal and external extractors, flat and arched mainspring housings, integral and add-on magazine wells, a variety of finishes and other options, with the idea of providing the end-user a selection from which to select the features that best fit their missions.[9] The AMU performed a well received demonstration of the first group of pistols to the Marine Corps at Quantico and various Special Operations units at Ft. Bragg and other locations.[9] The project provided a feasibility study with insight into future projects.[9] Models were loaned to various Special Operations units, the results of which are classified. An RFP was issued for a Joint Combat Pistol but it was ultimately canceled.[9] Currently units are experimenting with an M1911 platform in .40 which will incorporate lessons learned from the M1911 A2 project. Ultimately, the M1911 A2 project provided a test bed for improving existing M1911s. An improved M1911 variant becoming available in the future is a possibility.[9]

The Springfield Custom Professional Model 1911A1 pistol is produced under contract by Springfield Armory for the FBI regional SWAT teams and the Hostage Rescue Team. This pistol is made in batches on a regular basis by the Springfield Custom Shop, and a few examples from most runs are made available for sale to the general public at a selling price of approximately US$2,500 each.

[edit] MEU(SOC) pistol

A M1911 Colt Series 70.

Marine Expeditionary Units formerly issued M1911s to Force Recon units.[10] Hand-selected Colt M1911A1 frames were gutted, deburred, and prepared for additional use by the USMC Precision Weapon Section (PWS) at Marine Corps Base Quantico.[10] They were then assembled with after-market grip safeties, ambidextrous thumb safeties, triggers, improved high-visibility sights, accurized barrels, grips, and improved Wilson magazines.[11] These hand-made pistols were tuned to specifications and preferences of end users.[12]

In the late 1980s, the Marines laid out a series of specifications and improvements to make Browning's design ready for 21st century combat, many of which have been included in MEU(SOC) pistol designs, but design and supply time was limited.[12] Discovering that the Los Angeles Police Department was pleased with their special Kimber M1911 pistols, a single source request was issued to Kimber for just such a pistol despite the imminent release of their TLE/RLII models.[13] Kimber shortly began producing a limited number of what would be later termed the Interim Close Quarters Battle pistol (ICQB). Maintaining the simple recoil assembly, 5-inch barrel (though using a stainless steel match grade barrel), and internal extractor, the ICQB is not much different from Browning's original design.

A M1911 Colt Series 70.

The final units as issued to MCSOCOM Det-1 are the Kimber ICQBs with Surefire IMPL (Integrated Military Pistol Light), Dawson Precision Rails, Tritium Novak LoMount sights, Gemtech TRL Tactical Retention Lanyards, modified Safariland 6004 holsters, and Wilson Combat '47D' 8 round magazines. They have reportedly been used with over 15,000 rounds apiece.[13]

[edit] Other users

Numbers of Colt M1911s were used by the Royal Navy as sidearms during World War I in .455 Webley Automatic caliber.[4] The handguns were then transferred to the Royal Air Force where they saw use in limited numbers up until the end of World War II as sidearms for air crew in event of bailing out in enemy territory.[4] Some units of the South Korean Air Force still use these original batches as officers' sidearms

Norway used the Kongsberg Colt which was a license produced variant and is recognized by the unique slide catch. Many Spanish firearms manufacturers produced pistols derived from the 1911, such as the STAR Model P, the ASTAR 1911PL, just to name a few.[14] Argentina produced a licensed copy, the Model 1927 Sistema Colt, which eventually led to production of the cheaper Ballester-Molina, which is based closely on the 1911.

The Brazilian company IMBEL (Indústria de Material Bélico do Brasil) still produces the .45 in several variants for military and law enforcement uses.

The Greek Hellenic Army issues the M1911 as a sidearm. These are WWII production American pistols supplied as military aid in 1946 and afterward as the US aided Greece against Communist expansion.[15]

The Royal Thai Army still uses USGI M1911s that were supplied as military aid during the Vietnam War era.

The Rapid Action Battalion (RAB Forces), an anti-terrorist tactical team in Bangladesh uses this weapon.[16]

The Armed Forces of the Philippines issues Mil-spec M1911A1 pistols as a sidearm to the special forces, military police and officers. These pistols are produced by Armscor and Colt.

A Chinese Arms manufacturer, Norinco, exports a clone of the M1911A1 for civilian purchase. Importation into the US was blocked by trade rules in 1993. Norinco also manufactured conversion kits to chamber the 7.62x25mm Tokarev round after the Korean war.

[edit] Custom models

A Colt M1911 Gold Cup National Match edition with nickel plating.

Since its inception, the M1911 has lent itself to easy customization. Replacement sights, grips, and other aftermarket accessories are the most commonly offered parts. Since the 1950s and the rise of competitive pistol shooting, many companies have been offering the M1911 as a base model for major customization. These modifications can range from changing the external finish, checkering the frame, and handfitting custom hammers, triggers, and sears. Some modifications include installing compensators and the addition of accessories such as tactical lights and even scopes.[17] These guns can cost up to $4000 and are all totally built from the ground up or on existing base models.[18] The main companies offering custom Colt M1911s are: Springfield Custom Shop, Ed Brown, Nighthawk Custom, Wilson Combat and Les Baer.

[edit] Design

Springfield Mil Spec field stripped

Browning's basic M1911 design has seen very little change throughout its production life.[1] The basic principle of the pistol is recoil operation.[1] As the expanding combustion gases force the bullet down the barrel, they give reverse momentum to the slide and barrel which are locked together during this portion of the firing cycle. After the bullet has left the barrel, the slide and barrel continue rearward a short distance.[1]

At this point, a link pivots the barrel down, out of locking recesses in the slide, and brings the barrel to a stop. As the slide continues rearward, a claw extractor pulls the spent casing from the firing chamber and an ejector strikes the rear of the case pivoting it out and away from the pistol. The slide stops and is then propelled forward by a spring to strip a fresh cartridge from the magazine and feed it into the firing chamber. At the forward end of its travel, the slide locks into the barrel and is ready to fire again.

The military mandated a grip safety and a manual safety.[1] A grip safety, sear disconnect, slide stop, half cock position, and manual safety (located on the left rear of the frame) are on all standard M1911A1s.[1] Several companies have developed a firing pin block safety. Colt's 80 series uses a trigger operated one and several other manufacturers, including Kimber and Smith & Wesson, use a Swartz firing-pin safety, which is operated by the grip safety.[19][20]

The same basic design has also been offered commercially and has been used by other militaries. In addition to the .45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol), models chambered for .38 Super, 9mm Parabellum, .400 Corbon, and other cartridges were also offered. The M1911 was developed from earlier Colt designs firing rounds such as .38 ACP. The design beat out many other contenders during the government's selection period, during the late 1890s and 1900s, up to the pistol's adoption. The M1911 officially replaced a range of revolvers and pistols across branches of the U.S. armed forces, though a number of other designs have seen use in certain niches.

Despite being challenged by newer and lighter weight pistol designs in .45 caliber, such as the Glock 21, the SIG Sauer P220 and the Heckler & Koch Mk 23, the M1911 shows no signs of decreasing popularity, and continues to be widely present in various competitive matches, such as those of IDPA and IPSC.[9]

[edit] Users

[edit] Specifications

  • Cartridge: .45 ACP;
  • Other commercial and military derivatives: Other versions offered include .38 Super, 9mm Parabellum, .40 S&W, 10mm Auto, .400 Corbon, .22 LR, .50 GI,.455 Webley, 9x23 mm Winchester, and others. The major ones were 9mm Parabellum (9x19mm), .38 Super, 10mm Auto.
  • Barrel: 5 in (127 mm) Government, 4.25 in (108 mm) Commander, and the 3.5 in (89 mm) Officer's ACP. Some modern "carry" guns have significantly shorter barrels and frames, while others use standard frames and extended slides with 6 in (152 mm) barrels
  • Rate of twist: 16 in (406 mm) per turn, or 1:35.5 calibers (.45 ACP)
  • Operation: Recoil-operated, closed breech, single action, semi-automatic
  • Weight (unloaded): 2 lb 7 oz (1.1 kg) (government model)
  • Height: 5.25 in (133 mm)
  • Length: 8.25 in (210 mm)
  • Capacity: 7+1 rounds (7 in standard-capacity magazine +1 in firing chamber); 8+1 in aftermarket standard-size magazine; 9+1 in extended and hi-cap magazines/frames guns chambered in .38 Super and 9mm have a 9+1 capacity. Some models using double-stacked magazines, such as those from Para Ordnance, Strayer Voigt Inc and STI International Inc have significantly larger capacities. Colt makes their own 8 round magazines which they include with their Series 80 XSE models.
  • Safeties: A grip safety, sear disconnect, slide stop, a half cock position, and manual safety (located on the left rear of the frame) are on all standard M1911A1s. Several companies have developed a firing pin block. Colt's 80 series uses a trigger operated one and several other manufacturers (such as Smith & Wesson) use one operated by the grip safety.


Sex Pistols

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Sex Pistols

The Sex Pistols during the shoot for the "God Save the Queen" promotional video, early 1977. Left to right: Sid Vicious, Johnny Rotten, Paul Cook and Steve Jones.
Background information
Origin London, England
Genres Punk rock
Years active 1975–1978
Labels EMI, A&M, Virgin, Warner Bros.
Associated acts Public Image Ltd.
The Professionals
The Rich Kids
Neurotic Outsiders
Vicious White Kids
Sham Pistols
Ex Pistols
Siouxsie & the Banshees
The Flowers of Romance
John Lydon
Steve Jones
Paul Cook
Glen Matlock
Former members
Sid Vicious

The Sex Pistols are an English punk rock band that formed in London in 1975. They are responsible for initiating the punk movement in the United Kingdom and inspiring many later punk and alternative rock musicians. Although their initial career lasted just two-and-a-half years and produced only four singles and one studio album, Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols, they are regarded as one of the most influential acts in the history of popular music.[1]

The Sex Pistols originally comprised vocalist Johnny Rotten, guitarist Steve Jones, drummer Paul Cook and bassist Glen Matlock. Matlock was replaced by Sid Vicious in early 1977. Under the management of impresario Malcolm McLaren, the band created controversies which captivated Britain. Their concerts repeatedly faced difficulties with organisers and authorities, and public appearances often ended in mayhem. Their 1977 single "God Save the Queen", attacking Britons' social conformity and deference to the crown, precipitated the "last and greatest outbreak of pop-based moral pandemonium".[2]

In January 1978, at the end of a turbulent US tour, Rotten left the band and announced its breakup. Over the next several months, the three other band members recorded songs for McLaren's film version of the Sex Pistols' story, The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle. Vicious died of a heroin overdose in February, 1979. In 1996, Rotten, Jones, Cook and Matlock reunited for the Filthy Lucre Tour; since 2002, they have staged further reunion shows and tours. On 24 February 2006, the Sex Pistols—the four original members plus Vicious—were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, but they refused to attend the ceremony, calling the museum "a piss stain".[3]



[edit] History

[edit] Origins and early days

The Sex Pistols evolved from The Strand, a London band formed in 1973 with working-class teenagers Steve Jones on vocals, Paul Cook on drums, and Wally Nightingale on guitar. According to a later account by Jones, both he and Cook played on instruments they had stolen.[4] Early line-ups of The Strand—sometimes known as The Swankers—also included Jim Mackin on organ and Stephen Hayes (and later, briefly, Del Noones) on bass.[5] The band members hung out regularly at two clothing shops on Kings Road, in London's Chelsea neighbourhood: John Krivine and Steph Raynor's Acme Attractions (where Don Letts worked as manager)[6] and Malcolm McLaren and Vivienne Westwood's Too Fast to Live, Too Young to Die. The McLaren–Westwood store had opened in 1971 as Let It Rock, with a 1950s revival Teddy Boy theme. It had been renamed in 1972 to focus on another revival trend, the rocker look associated with Marlon Brando.[7] As John Lydon later observed, "Malcolm and Vivienne were really a pair of shysters: they would sell anything to any trend that they could grab onto."[8] The shop was to become a focal point of the punk rock scene, bringing together participants such as the future Sid Vicious, Marco Pirroni, Gene October, and Mark Stewart, among many others.[9] Jordan, the wildly styled shop assistant, is credited with "pretty well single-handedly paving the punk look".[10]

In early 1974, Jones convinced McLaren to help out The Strand. Effectively becoming the group's manager, McLaren paid for their first formal rehearsal space. Glen Matlock, an art student who occasionally worked at Too Fast to Live, Too Young to Die, was recruited as the band's regular bassist.[11] In November, McLaren temporarily relocated to New York City. Before his departure, McLaren and Westwood had conceived of a new identity for their store: renamed Sex, it changed its focus from retro couture to S&M-inspired "anti-fashion", with a billing as "Specialists in rubberwear, glamourwear & stagewear".[12] After briefly managing and promoting the New York Dolls, McLaren returned to London in May 1975. Inspired by the punk scene that was beginning to emerge in Lower Manhattan—in particular by the radical visual style and attitude of Richard Hell, then with Television—McLaren began taking greater interest in The Strand.[13]

The group had been rehearsing regularly, overseen by McLaren's friend Bernard Rhodes, and had performed publicly for the first time. Soon after McLaren's return, Nightingale was kicked out of the band and Jones, uncomfortable as frontman, took over guitar duties.[14] According to journalist and former McLaren employee Phil Strongman, around this time the band adopted the name QT Jones and the Sex Pistols (or QT Jones & His Sex Pistols, as one Rhodes-designed T-shirt put it).[15] McLaren had been talking with the New York Dolls' Sylvain Sylvain about coming over to England to front the group. When those plans fell through, McLaren, Rhodes and the band began looking locally for a new member to assume the lead vocal duties.[16] As described by Matlock, "[E]veryone had long hair then, even the milkman, so what we used to do was if someone had short hair we would stop them in the street and ask them if they fancied themselves as a singer."[17] Among those they approached was Midge Ure, who was involved with his own band, Slik. Kevin Rowland—who would cofound Dexys Midnight Runners three years later—auditioned, but except for Matlock, no one was impressed. With the search going nowhere, McLaren made several calls to Richard Hell, who turned down the invitation.[18]

[edit] Johnny Rotten joins the band

In August 1975, Rhodes spotted nineteen-year-old Kings Road habitué John Lydon wearing a Pink Floyd T-shirt with the words I Hate handwritten above the band's name and holes scratched through the eyes.[19][20][21] Reports vary at this point: the same day, or soon after, either Rhodes or McLaren asked Lydon to come to a nearby pub in the evening to meet Jones and Cook.[19][22] According to Jones, "He came in with green hair. I thought he had a really interesting face. I liked his look. He had his 'I Hate Pink Floyd' T-shirt on, and it was held together with safety pins. John had something special, but when he started talking he was a real asshole—but smart."[19] When the pub closed, the group moved over to Sex, where Lydon, who had given little thought to singing, was convinced to improvise along to Alice Cooper's "I'm Eighteen" on the shop jukebox. Though the performance drove the band members to laughter, McLaren convinced them to start rehearsing with Lydon.[19][23]

Lydon later described the social context in which the band came together:

Early Seventies Britain was a very depressing place. It was completely run-down, there was trash on the streets, total unemployment—just about everybody was on strike. Everybody was brought up with an education system that told you point blank that if you came from the wrong side of the tracks...then you had no hope in hell and no career prospects at all. Out of that came pretentious moi and the Sex Pistols and then a whole bunch of copycat wankers after us.[24]

Nick Kent—a writer for the New Musical Express (NME)—used to jam occasionally with the band, but left upon Lydon's recruitment. "When I came along, I took one look at him and said, 'No. That has to go,'" Lydon later explained. "He's never written a good word about me ever since."[25] In September, McLaren again helped hire private rehearsal space for the group, which had been practicing in pubs. Cook, who had a full-time job he was loath to give up, was making noises about quitting. According to Matlock's later description, Cook "created a smokescreen" by claiming Jones wasn't skilled enough to be the band's sole guitarist. An advertisement was placed in Melody Maker for a "Whizz Kid Guitarist. Not older than 20. Not worse looking than Johnny Thunders" (referring to a leading member of the New York punk scene).[26] Most of those who turned up to audition were obviously incompetent, but in McLaren's view, the process created a new sense of solidarity among the four band members.[27] The one talented guitarist who tried out, Steve New, was brought on. Jones, however, was improving rapidly and the band's developing sound had no room for the sort of technical lead work at which New was adept. He departed after a month.[28]

Lydon had been rechristened "Johnny Rotten" by Jones, apparently because of his bad dental hygiene.[21][29] The band also settled on a name. After considering options such as Le Bomb, Subterraneans, the Damned, Beyond, Teenage Novel, Kid Gladlove, and Crème De La Crème, they decided on Sex Pistols—a shortened form of the name they had apparently been working under informally.[30] McLaren later explained that the name derived "from the idea of a pistol, a pin-up, a young thing, a better-looking assassin". Not given to modesty, false or otherwise, he added, "[I] launched the idea in the form of a band of kids who could be perceived as being bad."[31] The group began writing original material: Rotten was the lyricist and Matlock the primary melody writer (though their first collaboration, "Pretty Vacant", had a complete lyric by Matlock, which Rotten tweaked a bit); official credit was shared equally among the four.[32][33]

The new quartet's first gig was arranged by Matlock, who was studying at Saint Martins College. The band played at the school on 6 November 1975,[34] in support of a pub rock group called Bazooka Joe, arranging to use their amps and drums. The Sex Pistols performed several cover songs, including The Who's "Substitute", the Small Faces' "Whatcha Gonna Do About It", and "(I'm Not Your) Steppin' Stone", made famous by The Monkees; according to observers, they were unexceptional musically aside from being extremely loud. Before the Pistols could play the few original songs they had written to date, Bazooka Joe pulled the plugs as they saw their gear being trashed. A brief physical altercation between members of the two bands took place on stage.[35]

[edit] Building a following

The original lineup of the Sex Pistols, early 1976. Left to right: Johnny Rotten, Steve Jones, Glen Matlock and Paul Cook.

The Saint Martins gig was followed by other performances at colleges and art schools around London. The Sex Pistols' core group of followers—including Siouxsie Sioux, Steve Severin and Billy Idol, who would go on to form bands of their own—came to be known as the Bromley Contingent, after the neighbourhood several were from.[36] Their cutting-edge fashion, much of it supplied by Sex, ignited a trend that was adopted by the new fans the band attracted.[37] McLaren and Westwood saw the incipient London punk movement as a vehicle for more than just couture. They were both captivated by the May 1968 radical uprising in Paris, particularly by the ideology and agitations of the Situationists, as well as the anarchist thought of Buenaventura Durruti and others.[38] These interests were shared with Jamie Reid, an old friend of McLaren's who began producing publicity material for the Sex Pistols in spring 1976.[39] (The cut-up lettering employed to create the classic Sex Pistols logo and many subsequent designs for the band was actually introduced by McLaren's friend Helen Wellington-Lloyd.)[40] "We used to talk to John [Lydon] a lot about the Situationists," Reid later said. "The Sex Pistols seemed the perfect vehicle to communicate ideas directly to people who weren't getting the message from left-wing politics."[41] McLaren was also arranging for the band's first photo sessions.[42] As described by music historian Jon Savage, "With his green hair, hunched stance and ragged look, [Lydon] looked like a cross between Uriah Heep and Richard Hell."[43]

The first Sex Pistols gig to attract broader attention was as a supporting act for Eddie and the Hot Rods, a leading pub rock group, at the Marquee on 12 February 1976. Rotten "was now really pushing the barriers of performance, walking off stage, sitting with the audience, throwing Jordan across the dancefloor and chucking chairs around, before smashing some of Eddie and the Hot Rods' gear."[44] The band's first review appeared in the NME, accompanied by a brief interview in which Steve Jones declared, "Actually we're not into music. We're into chaos."[45] Among those who read the article were two students at the Bolton Institute of Technology, Howard Devoto and Pete Shelley, who headed down to London in search of the Sex Pistols. After chatting with McLaren at Sex, they ultimately caught the band at a couple of late February gigs.[46] The two friends immediately began organizing their own Pistols-style group, the Buzzcocks. As Devoto later put it, "My life changed the moment that I saw the Sex Pistols."[47]

The Pistols were soon playing other important venues, debuting at Oxford Street's 100 Club on 30 March.[48] On 3 April, they played for the first time at the Nashville, supporting The 101ers. The pub rock group's lead singer, Joe Strummer, saw the Pistols for the first time that night—and recognized punk rock as the future.[49] A return gig at the Nashville, 23 April, demonstrated the band's growing musical competence, but by all accounts lacked a spark. Westwood provided that by instigating a fight with another audience member; McLaren and Rotten were soon involved in the melee.[50] Cook later said, "That fight at the Nashville: that's when all the publicity got hold of it and the violence started creeping in.... I think everybody was ready to go and we were the catalyst."[51] The Pistols were soon banned from both the Nashville and the Marquee.[52]

On 23 April, as well, the debut album by the leading punk rock band in the New York scene, the Ramones, was released. Though it is regarded as seminal to the growth of punk rock in England and elsewhere, Lydon has repeatedly rejected any suggestion that it influenced the Sex Pistols: "[The Ramones] were all long-haired and of no interest to me. I didn't like their image, what they stood for, or anything about them";[53] "They were hilarious but you can only go so far with 'duh-dur-dur-duh'. I've heard it. Next. Move on."[54] On 11 May, the Pistols began a four-week-long Tuesday night residency at the 100 Club.[55] The rest of the month was mostly devoted to touring small cities and towns in the north of England and recording demos in London with producer and recording artist Chris Spedding.[55][56] The following month they played their first gig in Manchester, arranged by Devoto and Shelley. The Sex Pistols' 4 June performance at the Lesser Free Trade Hall set off a punk rock boom in the city.[57][58]

The Sex Pistols in performance at the 100 Club, 1976. On the right: Steve Jones (foreground) and Johnny Rotten (background).

On 4 July and 6 July, respectively, two newly formed London punk rock acts, The Clash—with Strummer as lead vocalist—and The Damned, made their live debuts opening for the Sex Pistols. On their off night in between, the Pistols (despite Lydon's later professed disdain) showed up for a Ramones gig at Dingwalls like virtually everyone else at the heart of the London punk scene.[59] During a return Manchester engagement, 20 July, the Pistols premiered a new song, "Anarchy in the U.K.", reflecting elements of the radical ideologies to which Rotten was being exposed. According to Jon Savage, "there seems little doubt that Lydon was fed material by Vivienne Westwood and Jamie Reid, which he then converted into his own lyric."[60] "Anarchy in the U.K." was among the seven originals recorded in another demo session that month, this one overseen by the band's sound engineer, Dave Goodman.[61] McLaren organized a major event for 29 August at the Screen on the Green in London's Islington district: the Buzzcocks and The Clash opened for the Sex Pistols in punk's "first metropolitan test of strength".[62] Three days later, the band were in Manchester to tape what would be their first television appearance, for Tony Wilson's So It Goes. Scheduled to perform just one song, "Anarchy in the U.K.", the band ran straight through another two numbers as pandemonium broke out in the control room.[63]

The Sex Pistols played their first concert outside Britain on 3 September, at the opening of the Chalet du Lac disco in Paris. The Bromley Contingent accompanied them, with Siouxsie Sioux's swastika armband causing a stir.[64] The following day, the So It Goes performance aired; the audience heard "Anarchy in the U.K." introduced with a shout of "Get off your arse!"[64][65] On 13 September, the Pistols began a tour of Britain.[66] A week later, back in London, they headlined the opening night of the 100 Club Punk Special. Organized by McLaren (for whom the word "festival" had too much of a hippie connotation), the event was "considered the moment that was the catalyst for the years to come."[67] Belying the common perception that punk bands couldn't play their instruments, contemporary music press reviews, later critical assessments of concert recordings, and testimonials by fellow musicians indicate that the Pistols had developed into a tight, ferocious live band.[68] As Rotten tested out wild vocalization styles, the instrumentalists experimented "with overload, feedback and distortion...pushing their equipment to the limit".[69]

[edit] EMI and the Grundy incident

On 8 October 1976, the major record label EMI signed the Sex Pistols to a two-year contract.[70] In short order, the band was in the studio recording a full-dress session with Dave Goodman. As later described by Matlock, "The idea was to get the spirit of the live performance. We were pressurized to make it faster and faster."[71] The riotous results were rejected. Chris Thomas, who had produced Roxy Music and, ironically, mixed Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon, was brought in to produce.[72] The band's first single, "Anarchy in the U.K.", was released on 26 November 1976.[71] John Robb—soon to be a cofounder of The Membranes and later a music journalist—described the record's impact: "From Steve Jones' opening salvo of descending chords, to Johnny Rotten's fantastic sneering vocals, this song is the perfect statement...a stunningly powerful piece of punk politics...a lifestyle choice, a manifesto that heralds a new era".[73] Colin Newman, who had just cofounded the band Wire, heard it as "the clarion call of a generation."[74]

"Anarchy in the U.K." was not, in fact, the first British punk single, pipped by The Damned's "New Rose". "We Vibrate" had also appeared from The Vibrators, a pub rock band formed early in 1976 that had become associated with punk—though "with their long hair and mildly risqué name, the Vibrators were passers-by as far as punk taste-makers were concerned."[75] Unlike those songs, whose lyrical content was comfortably within rock 'n' roll traditions, "Anarchy in the U.K." linked punk to a newly politicized attitude—the Pistols' stance was aggrieved, euphoric and nihilistic, all at the same time. Rotten's howls of "I am an anti-christ" and "Destroy!" repurposed rock as an ideological weapon.[76] The single's packaging and visual promotion also broke new ground. Reid and McLaren came up with the notion of selling the record in a completely wordless, featureless black sleeve.[77] The primary image associated with the single was Reid's "anarchy flag" poster: a Union Flag ripped up and partly safety-pinned back together, with the song and band names clipped along the edges of a gaping hole in the middle. This and other images created by Reid for the Sex Pistols quickly became punk icons.[78]

The Sex Pistols' behaviour, as much as their music, brought them national attention. On 1 December 1976, the band and members of the Bromley Contingent created a storm of publicity by swearing during an early evening live broadcast of Thames Television's Today programme. Appearing as last-minute replacements for fellow EMI artists Queen, band and entourage were offered drinks as they waited to go on air. During the interview, Jones said the band had "fucking spent" its label advance and Rotten used the word "shit." Host Bill Grundy, who had earlier claimed to be drunk, engaged in repartee with Siouxie Sioux, who declared that she had "always wanted to meet" him. Grundy responded, "Did you really? We'll meet afterwards, shall we?" This prompted the following exchange between Jones and the host:

Jones: You dirty sod. You dirty old man.
Grundy: Well keep going chief, keep going. Go on. You've got another five seconds. Say something outrageous.
Jones: You dirty bastard.
Grundy: Go on, again.
Jones: You dirty fucker.
Grundy: What a clever boy.
Jones: What a fucking rotter.[79]
Daily Mirror front page, 2 December 1976

Although the programme was broadcast only in the London region, the ensuing furore occupied the tabloid newspapers for days. The Daily Mirror famously ran the headline "The Filth and the Fury!";[80] other papers such as the Daily Express ("Fury at Filthy TV Chat") and the Daily Telegraph ("4-Letter Words Rock TV") followed suit.[81] Thames Television suspended Grundy, and though he was later reinstated, the interview effectively ended his career.[82]

The episode made the band household names throughout the country and brought punk into mainstream awareness. The Pistols set out on the Anarchy Tour of the UK, supported by The Clash and Johnny Thunders' band The Heartbreakers, over from New York. The Damned were briefly part of the tour, before McLaren kicked them off. Press coverage was intense, and many of the concerts were cancelled by organisers or local authorities; of approximately twenty scheduled gigs, only about seven actually took place.[83] Packers at the EMI plant refused to handle the band's single.[84] London councillor Bernard Brook Partridge declared, "Most of these groups would be vastly improved by sudden death. The worst of the punk rock groups I suppose currently are the Sex Pistols. They are unbelievably nauseating. They are the antithesis of humankind. I would like to see somebody dig a very, very large, exceedingly deep hole and drop the whole bloody lot down it."[85]

Following the end of the tour in late December, three concerts were arranged in Holland for January 1977. The band, hungover, boarded a plane at London Heathrow Airport early on 4 January; a few hours later, the Evening News was reporting that the band had "vomited and spat their way" to the flight.[86] Despite categorical denials by the EMI representative who accompanied the group, the label, which was under political pressure, released the band from their contract.[87] As McLaren fielded offers from other labels, the band went into the studio for a round of recordings with Goodman, their last with both him and Matlock.[88]

[edit] Sid Vicious joins the band

In February 1977, word leaked out that Matlock was leaving the Sex Pistols. On 28 February, McLaren sent a telegram to the NME confirming the split. He claimed that Matlock had been "thrown out...because he went on too long about Paul McCartney.... The Beatles was too much."[89] In an interview a few months afterward, Steve Jones echoed the charge that Matlock had been sacked because he "liked The Beatles".[4] Years later, Jones expanded on the matter of the band's issues with Matlock: "He was a good writer but he didn't look like a Sex Pistol and he was always washing his feet. His mum didn't like the songs."[90] Matlock told the NME that he had voluntarily left the band by "mutual agreement".[89] Later, in his autobiography, he would describe the primary impetus as his increasingly acrimonious relationship with Rotten, exacerbated—in Matlock's account—by the rampant inflation of Rotten's ego "once he'd had his name in the papers".[91] Lydon would later claim that "God Save the Queen", the belligerently sardonic song planned as the band's second single, had been the final straw: "[Matlock] couldn't handle those kinds of lyrics. He said it declared us fascists." Though the singer could hardly see how antiroyalism equated with fascism, he claimed, "Just to get rid of him, I didn't deny it."[92] Jon Savage suggests that Rotten pushed Matlock out in an effort to demonstrate his power and autonomy from McLaren.[93] Matlock almost immediately formed his own band, Rich Kids, with Midge Ure, Steve New, and Rusty Egan.

Warner Bros. Records, the Sex Pistols' American label, found this an appropriate image with which to promote Sid Vicious.

Matlock was replaced by Rotten's friend and self-appointed "ultimate Sex Pistols fan" Sid Vicious. Born Simon John Ritchie, later known as John Beverley, Vicious was previously drummer of two inner circle punk bands, Siouxsie & the Banshees and The Flowers of Romance. He was also credited with introducing the pogo dance to the scene at the 100 Club. John Robb claims it was at the first Sex Pistols residency gig, 11 May 1976; Matlock is convinced it happened during the second night of the 100 Club Punk Special in September, when the Pistols were off playing in Wales.[94] In Matlock's description, Rotten wanted Vicious in the band because "[i]nstead of him against Steve and Paul, it would become him and Sid against Steve and Paul. He always thought of it in terms of opposing camps".[95] Julien Temple, then a film student whom McLaren had put on the Sex Pistols payroll to create a comprehensive audiovisual record of the band, concurs: "Sid was John's protégé in the group, really. The other two just thought he was crazy."[93] McLaren later stated that, much earlier in the band's career, Vivienne Westwood had told him he should "get the guy called John who came to the store a couple of times" to be the singer. When Johnny Rotten was recruited for the band, Westwood said McLaren had got it wrong: "he had got the wrong John." It was John Beverley, the future Vicious, she had been recommending.[96] McLaren approved the belated inclusion of Vicious, who had virtually no experience on his new instrument, on account of his look and reputation in the punk scene.

Pogoing aside, Vicious had been involved in a notorious incident during that memorable second night of the 100 Club Punk Special. Arrested for hurling a glass at The Damned that shattered and blinded a girl in one eye, he had served time in a remand centre—and contributed to the 100 Club banning all punk bands.[97] At a previous 100 Club gig, he had assaulted Nick Kent with a bicycle chain.[98] Indeed, McLaren's NME telegram said that Vicious's "best credential was he gave Nick Kent what he deserved many months ago at the Hundred Club".[89][99] According to a later description by McLaren, "When Sid joined he couldn't play guitar but his craziness fit into the structure of the band. He was the knight in shining armour with a giant fist."[100] "Everyone agreed he had the look," Lydon later recalled, but musical skill was another matter. "The first March of 1977 with Sid were hellish.... Sid really tried hard and rehearsed a lot".[101] Marco Pirroni, who had performed with Vicious in Siouxsie & the Banshees, has said, "After that, it was nothing to do with music anymore. It would just be for the sensationalism and scandal of it all. Then it became the Malcolm McLaren story".[100]

Membership in the Sex Pistols had a progressively destructive effect on Vicious. As Lydon later observed, "Up to that time, Sid was absolutely childlike. Everything was fun and giggly. Suddenly he was a big pop star. Pop star status meant press, a good chance to be spotted in all the right places, adoration. That's what it all meant to Sid."[100] Westwood had already been feeding him material, like a tome on Charles Manson, likely to encourage his worst instincts.[102] Early in 1977, he met Nancy Spungen, an emotionally disturbed drug addict and sometime prostitute from New York.[100][103] Spungen is commonly thought to be responsible for introducing Vicious to heroin, and the emotional codependency between the couple alienated Vicious from the other members of the band. Lydon later wrote, "We did everything to get rid of Nancy.... She was killing him. I was absolutely convinced this girl was on a slow suicide mission.... Only she didn't want to go alone. She wanted to take Sid with her.... She was so utterly fucked up and evil."[104]

[edit] “God Save the Queen”

On 10 March 1977, at a press ceremony held outside Buckingham Palace, the Sex Pistols publicly signed to A&M Records (the real signing had taken place the day before). Afterward, stoked on booze, they made their way to the A&M offices. Vicious smashed in a toilet bowl and cut his foot (there is some disagreement about which happened first). As Vicious trailed blood around the offices, Rotten verbally abused the staff and Jones got frisky in the ladies' room.[105] A couple of days later, the Pistols got into a rumble with another band at a club; one of Rotten's pals threatened the life of a good friend of A&M's English director. On 16 March, A&M broke contract with the Pistols. Twenty-five thousand copies of the planned "God Save the Queen" single, produced by Chris Thomas, had already been pressed; virtually all were destroyed.[106]

Jamie Reid's "God Save the Queen" sleeve; in 2001, it was named the greatest record cover of all time by Q magazine.[107]

Vicious debuted with the band at London's Notre Dame Hall on 28 March.[108] In May, the band signed with Virgin Records, their third new label in little more than half a year. Virgin was more than ready to release "God Save the Queen", but new obstacles arose. Workers at the pressing plant laid down their tools in protest at the song's content. Jamie Reid's now famous cover, showing Queen Elizabeth II with her features obscured by the song and band names in cutout letters, offended the sleeve's platemakers.[109] After much talk, production resumed and the record was finally released on 27 May.[110]

The scabrous lyrics—"God save the queen/She ain't no human being/And there's no future/In England's dreaming"—prompted widespread outcry.[111] Several major chains refused to stock the single.[110] It was banned not only by the BBC but also by every independent radio station, making it the "most heavily censored record in British history".[112] Rotten boasted, "We're the only honest band that's hit this planet in about two thousand million years."[113] Jones shrugged off everything the song stated and implied—or took nihilism to a logical endpoint: "I don't see how anyone could describe us as a political band. I don't even know the name of the Prime Minister."[113] The song, and its public impact, are now recognized as "punk's crowning glory".[2]

The Virgin release had been timed to coincide with the height of Queen Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee celebrations. By Jubilee weekend, a week and a half after the record's release, it had sold more than 150,000 copies—a massive success. On 7 June, McLaren and the record label arranged to charter a private boat and have the Sex Pistols perform while sailing down the River Thames, passing Westminster Pier and the Houses of Parliament. The event, a mockery of the Queen's river procession planned for two days later, ended in chaos. Police launches forced the boat to dock, and constabulary surrounded the gangplanks at the pier. While the band members and their equipment were hustled down a side stairwell, McLaren, Westwood, and many of the band's entourage were arrested.[114]

With the official UK record chart for Jubilee week about to be released, the Daily Mirror predicted that "God Save the Queen" would be number one. As it turned out, the record placed second, behind a Rod Stewart single in its fourth week at the top. Many believed that the record had actually qualified for the top spot, but that the chart had been rigged to prevent a spectacle. McLaren later claimed that CBS Records, which was distributing both singles, told him that the Sex Pistols were actually outselling Stewart two to one. There is evidence that an exceptional directive was issued by the British Phonographic Institute, which oversaw the chart-compiling bureau, to exclude sales from record-company operated shops such as Virgin's for that week only.[115]

Violent attacks on punk fans were on the rise. In mid-June Rotten himself was assaulted by a knife-wielding gang outside Islington's Pegasus pub, causing tendon damage to his left arm. Jamie Reid and Paul Cook were beaten up in other incidents; three days after the Pegasus assault, Rotten was attacked again.[116] A tour of Scandinavia, planned to start at the end of the month, was consequently delayed until mid-July. During the tour, a Swedish interviewer observed to Jones that "a lot of people" regarded the band as McLaren's "creation". Jones replied, "He's our manager, that's all. He's got nothing to do with the music or the image...he's just a good manager."[4] In another interview, Rotten professed bafflement at the furore surrounding the group: "I don't understand it. All we're trying to do is destroy everything."[117] At the end of August came SPOTS—Sex Pistols On Tour Secretly, a surreptitious UK tour with the band playing under pseudonyms to avoid cancellation.[118]

McLaren had wanted for some time to make a movie featuring the Sex Pistols. Julien Temple's first major task had been to assemble Sex Pistols Number 1, a twenty-five-minute mosaic of footage from various sources, much of it refilmed by Temple off of television screens.[119] Number 1 was often screened at concert venues before the band took the stage. Using media footage from the Thames incident, Temple created another propagandistic short, Jubilee Riverboat (aka Sex Pistols Number 2).[120] During summer 1977, McLaren had been making arrangements for the feature film of his dreams, Who Killed Bambi?, to be directed by Russ Meyer from a script by Roger Ebert. After a single day of shooting, 11 September, production ceased when it became clear that McLaren had failed to arrange financing.[121]

[edit] Never Mind the Bollocks

Since the spring of 1977, the three senior Sex Pistols had been returning to the studio periodically with Chris Thomas to lay down the tracks for the band's debut album. Initially to be called God Save Sex Pistols, it became known during the summer as Never Mind the Bollocks.[122] According to Jones, "Sid wanted to come down and play on the album, and we tried as hard as possible not to let him anywhere near the studio. Luckily he had hepatitis at the time."[123] Cook later described how many of the instrumental tracks were built up from drum and guitar parts, rather than the usual drum and bass.[124]

Given Vicious's incompetence, Matlock had been invited to record as a session musician. In his autobiography, Matlock says he agreed to "help out", but then suggests that he cut all ties after McLaren issued the 28 February NME telegram announcing Matlock had been fired for liking the Beatles.[125] In fact, Matlock did play as a hired hand on 3 March, for what Jon Savage describes as an "audition session".[126] In his autobiography, Lydon claims that Matlock's work-for-hire for his ex-band was extensive—much more so than any other source reports—seemingly to amplify a putdown: "I think I'd rather die than do something like that."[127] Music historian David Howard states unambiguously that Matlock did not perform on any of the Never Mind the Bollocks recording sessions.[128] It was Jones who ultimately played most of the bass parts during the Bollocks recordings; Howard calls his rudimentary, rumbling approach the "explosive missing ingredient" of the Sex Pistols' sound.[128] Vicious's bass is reportedly present on one track that appeared on the original album release, "Bodies". Jones recalls, "He played his farty old bass part and we just let him do it. When he left I dubbed another part on, leaving Sid's down low. I think it might be barely audible on the track."[129] Following "God Save the Queen", two more singles were released from these sessions, "Pretty Vacant" (largely written by Matlock) on 1 July[130] and "Holidays in the Sun" on 14 October.[131] Each was a Top Ten hit.[132]

Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols (which includes "Anarchy in the U.K." and another earlier recording, "No Feelings") was released on 28 October 1977.[133] Rolling Stone praised the album as "just about the most exciting rock & roll record of the Seventies", applauding the band for playing "with an energy and conviction that is positively transcendent in its madness and fever".[134] Some critics, disappointed that the album contained all four previously released singles, dismissed it as little more than a "greatest hits" record.[135] Containing both "Bodies"—in which Rotten utters "fuck" five times—and the previously censored "God Save the Queen" and featuring the word bollocks (popular slang for testicles) in its title, the album was banned by Boots, W. H. Smith and Woolworth's.[136] The Conservative shadow minister for education condemned it as "a symptom of the way society is declining" and both the Independent Television Companies' Association and the Association of Independent Radio Contractors banned its advertisements.[137] Nonetheless, advance sales were sufficient to make it an undeniable number one on the album chart.[136]

U.S. poster for Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols

The album title led to a legal case that attracted considerable attention: a Virgin Records store in Nottingham that put the album in its window was threatened with prosecution for displaying "indecent printed matter". The case was thrown out when defending QC John Mortimer produced an expert witness who established that bollocks was an Old English term for a small ball, that it appeared in place names without causing local communities erotic disturbance, and that in the nineteenth century it had been used as a nickname for clergymen: "Clergymen are known to talk a good deal of rubbish and so the word later developed the meaning of nonsense."[138] In the context of the Pistols' album title, the term does in fact primarily signify "nonsense". Steve Jones off-handedly came up with the title as the band debated what to call the album. An exasperated Jones said, "Oh, fuck it, never mind the bollocks of it all."[139]

After playing a few dates in Holland—the beginning of a planned multinational tour—the band set out on a Never Mind the Bans tour of Britain in December 1977. Of eight scheduled dates, four were cancelled due to illness or political pressure. On Christmas Day, the Sex Pistols played two shows at Ivanhoe's in Huddersfield. Before a regular evening concert, the band performed a benefit matinee for the children of "striking firemen, laid-off workers and one-parent families."[140] These would turn out to be the band's final UK performances.[141]

[edit] US tour and the end of the band

In January 1978, the Sex Pistols embarked on a US tour, consisting mainly of dates in America's Deep South. Originally scheduled to begin a few days before New Year's, it was delayed due to American authorities' reluctance to issue visas to band members with criminal records. Several dates in the North had to be cancelled as a result.[133][142] Though highly anticipated by fans and media, the tour was plagued by in-fighting, poor planning and physically belligerent audiences. McLaren later admitted that he purposely booked redneck bars to provoke hostile situations.[96] Over the course of the two weeks, Vicious, by now heavily addicted to heroin,[143] began to live up to his stage name. "He finally had an audience of people who would behave with shock and horror", Lydon later wrote. "Sid was easily led by the nose."[144]

Early in the tour, Vicious wandered off from his Holiday Inn in Memphis, Tennessee, looking for drugs. He was found in a hospital, having carved the words "Gimme a fix" in his chest with a razor. During a concert in San Antonio, Texas, Vicious called the crowd "a bunch of faggots", before striking an audience member across the head with his bass guitar.[143] In Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he received simulated oral sex on stage, later declaring "that’s the kind of girl I like".[145] Suffering from heroin withdrawal during a show in Dallas, Texas, he spat blood at a woman who had climbed onstage and punched him in the face.[144] He was admitted to hospital later that night to treat various injuries. Offstage he is said to have kicked a female photographer, attacked a security guard, and eventually challenged one of his own bodyguards to a fight—beaten up, he is reported to have exclaimed, "I like you. Now we can be friends."[100]

Rotten, meanwhile, suffering from flu[146] and coughing up blood, felt increasingly isolated from Cook and Jones, and disgusted by Vicious.[147] On 14 January 1978, during the tour's final date at the Winterland Ballroom in San Francisco, a disillusioned Rotten introduced the band's encore saying, "You'll get one number and one number only 'cause I'm a lazy bastard." That one number was a Stooges cover, "No Fun". At the end of the song, Rotten, kneeling on the stage, chanted an unambiguous declaration, "This is no fun. No fun. This is no fun—at all. No fun." As the final cymbal crash died away, Rotten addressed the audience directly—"Ah-ha-ha. Ever get the feeling you've been cheated? Good night"—before throwing down his microphone and walking offstage.[148] He later observed, "I felt cheated, and I wasn't going on with it any longer; it was a ridiculous farce. Sid was completely out of his brains—just a waste of space. The whole thing was a joke at that point.... [Malcolm] wouldn't speak to me.... He would not discuss anything with me. But then he would turn around and tell Paul and Steve that the tension was all my fault because I wouldn't agree to anything."[149]

On 17 January, the band split, making their ways separately to Los Angeles. McLaren, Cook and Jones prepared to fly to Rio de Janeiro for a working vacation. Vicious, in increasingly bad shape, was taken to Los Angeles by a friend, who then brought him to New York, where he was immediately hospitalized.[150] Rotten later described his own situation: "The Sex Pistols left me, stranded in Los Angeles with no ticket, no hotel room, and a message to Warner Bros saying that if anyone phones up claiming to be Johnny Rotten, then they were lying. That's how I finished with Malcolm—but not with the rest of the band; I'll always like them."[151] Rotten flew to New York, where he announced the band's breakup in a newspaper interview on 18 January.[152] Virtually broke, he telephoned the head of Virgin Records, Richard Branson, who agreed to pay for his flight back to London, via Jamaica. In Jamaica, Branson met with members of the band Devo, and tried to install Rotten as their lead singer. Devo declined the offer.[153]

Cook, Jones and Vicious never performed together again live after Rotten's departure. Over the next several months, McLaren arranged for recordings in Brazil (with Jones and Cook), Paris (with Vicious) and London; each of the three and others stepped in as lead vocalists on tracks that in some cases were far from what punk was expected to sound like. These recordings were to make up the musical soundtrack for the reconceived Pistols feature film project, directed by Julian Temple, to which McLaren was now devoting himself. On 30 June, a single credited to the Sex Pistols was released: on one side, notorious criminal Ronnie Biggs sang "No One Is Innocent" accompanied by Jones and Cook; on the other, Vicious sang the classic "My Way", over both a Jones-Cook backing track and a string orchestra.[154] The single reached number six on the charts, eventually outselling all the singles with which Rotten was involved.[155] McLaren was seeking to reconstitute the band with a permanent new frontman, but Vicious—McLaren's first choice—had sickened of him. In return for agreeing to record "My Way", Vicious had demanded that McLaren sign a sheet of paper declaring that he was no longer Vicious's manager. In August, Vicious, back in London, delivered his final performances as a nominal Sex Pistol: recording and filming cover versions of two Eddie Cochran songs. The bassist's return to New York in September put paid to McLaren's dreaming.[156]

[edit] Post-breakup

After leaving the Pistols, Johnny Rotten reverted to his birth name of Lydon, and formed Public Image Ltd. (PiL) with former Clash member Keith Levene and school friend Jah Wobble.[157] The band went on to score a UK Top Ten hit with their debut single, 1978's "Public Image". Lydon initiated legal proceedings against McLaren and the Sex Pistols' management company, Glitterbest, which McLaren controlled. Among the claims were non-payment of royalties, improper usage of the title "Johnny Rotten", unfair contractual obligations,[158] and damages for "all the criminal activities that took place".[159] In 1979, PiL recorded the post-punk classic Metal Box. Lydon performed with the band through 1992, as well as engaging in other projects such as Time Zone with Afrika Bambaataa and Bill Laswell.

Vicious, relocated in New York, began performing as a solo artist, with Nancy Spungen acting as his manager. He recorded a live album, backed by "The Idols" featuring Arthur Kane and Jerry Nolan of the New York Dolls—Sid Sings was released in 1979. On 12 October 1978, Spungen was found dead in the Chelsea Hotel room she was sharing with Vicious, with stab wounds to her stomach and dressed only in her underwear.[160] Police recovered drug paraphernalia from the scene and Vicious was arrested and charged with her murder. In an interview at the time, McLaren said, "I can't believe he was involved in such a thing. Sid was set to marry Nancy in New York. He was very close to her and had quite a passionate affair with her."[160] (Evidence subsequently revealed points strongly to heroin dealer and sometime actor Rockets Redglare as Spungen's killer.)[161] While free on bail, Vicious smashed a beer mug in the face of Todd Smith, Patti Smith's brother, and was arrested again on an assault charge. On 9 December 1978 he was sent to Rikers Island jail, where he spent 55 days and underwent enforced cold-turkey detox. He was released on 1 February 1979; sometime after midnight, following a small party to celebrate his release, Vicious died of a heroin overdose.[162] He was only twenty-one. Reflecting on the event, Lydon said, "Poor Sid. The only way he could live up to what he wanted everyone to believe about him was to die. That was tragic, but more for Sid than anyone else. He really bought his public image."[163]

On 7 February 1979, just five days after Vicious's death, hearings began in London on Lydon's lawsuit. Cook and Jones were allied with McLaren, but as evidence mounted that their manager had poured virtually all of the band's revenue into his beloved film project, they switched sides. On 14 February, the court put the film and its soundtrack into receivership—no longer under McLaren's control, they were now to be administered as exploitable assets for addressing the band members' financial claims. McLaren, with substantial personal debts and legal fees, took off for Paris to sign a record deal for an LP of standards, including "Non, je ne regrette rien". A month later, back in London, he disassociated himself from the film to which he had devoted so much time and money.[164] McLaren went on to manage Adam and the Ants and Bow Wow Wow. In the mid-1980s he released a number of successful and influential records as a solo artist.[165]

The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle, the soundtrack album for the still-uncompleted film, was released by Virgin Records on 24 February 1979. It is mostly composed of tracks credited to the Sex Pistols: There are the new recordings with vocals by Jones, Vicious, Cook, and Ronnie Biggs, as well as Edward Tudor-Pole, briefly considered as a permanent replacement for Rotten. McLaren himself takes the mic for a couple of numbers. Several tracks feature Rotten's vocals from early, unissued sessions, in some cases with re-recorded backing by Jones and Cook. There is one live cut, from the band's final concert in San Francisco. The album is completed by a couple of tracks in which other artists cover Sex Pistols classics.[166] Four Top Ten singles were culled from the Swindle recordings, one more than had appeared on Never Mind the Bollocks. The 1978 "No One Is Innocent"/"My Way" was followed in 1979 by Vicious's cover of "Something Else" (number three, and the biggest-selling single ever under the Sex Pistols name); Jones singing an original, "Silly Thing" (number six); and Vicious's second Cochran cover, "C'mon Everybody" (number three). Two more singles from the soundtrack were put out under the Pistols brand—Tudor-Pole, among others, singing "The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle" and a Rotten vocal from 1976, "(I'm Not Your) Steppin' Stone"; both fell just shy of the Top Twenty.[167] On 21 November 1980, the final "new" studio recordings attributed to the Sex Pistols were released by Virgin: "Black Leather" and "Here We Go Again", recorded by Jones and Cook during the mid-1978 Swindle sessions, were paired as one of a half-dozen 7-inch records (the other five reconfiguring previously released material) sold together as Sex Pack.[168]

The Sex Pistols film was completed by Temple, who received sole credit for the script after McLaren had his name taken off the production. Finally released in 1980, The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle still largely reflects McLaren's vision. It is a fictionalised, farcical, partially animated retelling of the band's history and aftermath with McLaren in the lead role, Jones as second lead, and contributions from Vicious (including his memorable performance of "My Way") and Cook. It incorporates promotional videos shot for "God Save the Queen" and "Pretty Vacant" and extensive documentary footage as well, much of it focusing on Rotten. In Temple's description, he and McLaren conceived it as a "very stylized...polemic". They were reacting to the fact that the Pistols had become the "poster on the bedroom wall of the day where you kneel down last thing at night and pray to your rock god. And that was never the point.... The myth had to be dynamited in some way. We had to make this film in a way to enrage the fans".[169] In the film, McLaren claims to have created the band from scratch and engineered its notorious reputation; much of what structure the loose narrative has is based on McLaren's teaching a series of "lessons" to be learned from "an invention of mine they called the punk rock".[170]

Cook and Jones continued to work through guest appearances and as session musicians. In 1980, they formed The Professionals, which lasted for two years. Jones went on to play with the bands Chequered Past and Neurotic Outsiders. He also recorded two solo albums, Mercy and Fire and Gasoline. Now a resident of Los Angeles, he hosts a daily radio program called Jonesy's Jukebox. Having played with the band Chiefs of Relief in the late 1980s and with Edwyn Collins in the 1990s,[171] Cook is now a member of Man Raze. Following The Rich Kids' breakup in 1979, Matlock played with various bands, toured with Iggy Pop, and recorded several solo albums. He is currently a member of Slinky Vagabond.

The 1979 court ruling had left many issues between Lydon and McLaren unresolved. Five years later, Lydon filed another action. Finally, on 16 January 1986, Lydon, Jones, Cook and the estate of Sid Vicious were awarded control of the band's heritage, including the rights to The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle and all the footage shot for it—more than 250 hours.[172] That same year, a fictionalised film account of Vicious's relationship with Spungen was released: Sid and Nancy, directed by Alex Cox. In his autobiography, Lydon lambastes the film, saying that it "celebrates heroin addiction", goes out of its way to "humiliate [Vicious's] life", and completely misrepresents the Sex Pistols' part in the London punk scene.[173]

[edit] Reunions and later group activities

The original four Sex Pistols reunited in 1996 for the six-month Filthy Lucre Tour, which included dates in Europe, North and South America, Australia and Japan.[174] The band members' access to the archives associated with The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle facilitated the production of the 2000 documentary The Filth and the Fury. This film—directed, like its predecessor, by Temple—was formulated as an attempt to tell the story from the band's point of view, in contrast to Swindle's focus on McLaren and the media.[175] In 2002—the year of the Queen's Golden Jubilee—the Sex Pistols reunited again to play the Crystal Palace National Sports Centre in London. In 2003, their Piss Off Tour took them around North America for three weeks.

On 9 March 2006, the band sold the rights to their back catalogue to Universal Music Group. The sale was criticized by some commentators as a "sell out".[176] In November 2006, the Sex Pistols were inducted to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, whose citation named Vicious as well as the four living members.[1] The band rejected the honour in coarse language on their website. In a television interview, Lydon accompanied a suggestion that the Hall of Fame "Kiss this!" with an obscene gesture.[177] According to Jones, "Once you want to be put into a museum, Rock & Roll's over; it's not voted by fans, it's voted by people who induct you, or others; people who are already in it."[178]

The Sex Pistols reunited again for five gigs at the Brixton Academy and one each in Manchester and Glasgow in November 2007.[179][180] In 2008, they undertook a series of European festival appearances, titled the Combine Harvester Tour. In August, they performed at Budapest's Sziget Festival and at the Dutch festival Lowlands. Lowlands director Eric van Eerdenburg declared the Pistols' performance "saddening": "They left their swimming pools at home only to scoop up some money here. Really, they're nothing more than that."[181] They later played at the Hammersmith Apollo. That same year, they released the DVD There'll Always Be An England, combining footage from two of the 2007 Brixton Academy appearances.

[edit] Legacy

[edit] Cultural influence

The Trouser Press Record Guide entry on the Sex Pistols declares that "their importance—both to the direction of contemporary music and more generally to pop culture—can hardly be overstated".[182] Rolling Stone has argued that the band, "in direct opposition to the star trappings and complacency" of mid-1970s rock, "came to spark and personify one of the few truly critical moments in pop culture—the rise of punk."[174] In 2004, the magazine ranked the Sex Pistols #58 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".[183] Leading music critic Dave Marsh called them "unquestionably the most radical new rock band of the Seventies."[184]

Although the Sex Pistols were not the first punk band, the few recordings that were released during the band's brief initial existence were singularly catalytic expressions of the punk movement. The releases of "Anarchy in the U.K.", "God Save the Queen" and Never Mind the Bollocks are counted among the most important events in the history of popular music. Never Mind the Bollocks is regularly cited in accountings of all-time great albums: In 2006, it was voted #28 in Q magazine's "100 Greatest Albums Ever",[185] while Rolling Stone listed it at #2 in its 1987 "Top 100 Albums of the Last 20 Years".[186] It has come to be recognized as among the most influential records in rock history.[179][187] A 2005 Allmusic critique describes it as "one of the greatest, most inspiring rock records of all time".[188]

The Sex Pistols directly inspired the style, and often the formation itself, of many punk and post-punk bands during their first two-and-a-half-year run. The Clash,[189] Siouxsie & the Banshees,[190] The Adverts,[191] Vic Godard of Subway Sect,[192] and Ari Up of The Slits[193] are among those in London's "inner circle" of early punk bands that credit the Pistols. Pauline Murray of Durham punk band Penetration saw the Pistols perform for the first time in Northallerton in May 1976. She later explained their importance,

Nothing would have happened without the Pistols. It was like, "Wow, I believe in this." What they were saying was: "It's a load of shite. I'm going to do what I do and I don't care what people think." That was the key to it. People forget that, but it was the main ideology for me: we don't care what you think—you're shit anyway. It was the attitude that got people moving, as well as the music.[194]

The Sex Pistols' 4 June 1976 concert at Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall was to become one of the most significant and mythologized events in rock history. Among the audience of merely forty people or so were many who became leading figures in the punk and post-punk movements: Pete Shelley and Howard Devoto, who organised the gig and were in the process of auditioning new members for the Buzzcocks; Bernard Sumner, Ian Curtis and Peter Hook, later of Joy Division; Mark E. Smith, later of The Fall; and Morrissey, later of The Smiths. Anthony H. Wilson, founder of Factory Records, saw the band for the first time at the return engagement on 20 July.[57] Among the many musicians of a later time who have acknowledged their debt to the Pistols are members of NOFX,[195] The Stone Roses,[196] Guns N' Roses,[197] Nirvana,[198] Green Day,[183] and Oasis.[199]

As described by the Trouser Press Record Guide, "the Pistols and manager/provocateur Malcolm McLaren challenged every aspect and precept of modern music-making, thereby inspiring countless groups to follow their cue onto stages around the world. A confrontational, nihilistic public image and rabidly nihilistic socio-political lyrics set the tone that continues to guide punk bands."[182] Critic Toby Creswell locates the primary source of inspiration somewhat differently. Noting that "[i]mage to the contrary, the Pistols were very serious about music", he argues, "The real rebel yell came from Jones' guitars: a mass wall of sound based on the most simple, retro guitar riffs. Essentially, the Sex Pistols reinforced what the garage bands of the '60s had demonstrated—you don't need technique to make rock & roll. In a time when music had been increasingly complicated and defanged, the Sex Pistols' generational shift caused a real revolution."[200]

An image of Vicious lacrimosa in Madrid, 2006

Along with their abundant musical influence, the Sex Pistols' cultural reverberations are evident elsewhere. Jamie Reid's work for the band is regarded as among the most important graphic design of the 1970s and still impacts the field in the 21st century.[201] By the age of twenty-one, Sid Vicious was already a "t-shirt-selling icon".[202] While the manner of his death signified for many the inevitable failure of punk's social ambitions, it cemented his image as an archetype of doomed youth.[203] British punk fashion, still widely influential, is now customarily credited to Westwood and McLaren; as Johnny Rotten, Lydon had a lasting effect as well, especially through his bricolage approach to personal style: he "would wear a velvet colored drape jacket (ted) festooned with safety pins (Jackie Curtis through the New York punk scene), massive pin-stripe pegs (modernist), a pin-collar Wemblex (mod) customised into an Anarchy shirt (punk) and brothel creepers (ted)."[204] Christopher Nolan, director of the Batman movie The Dark Knight, has said that Rotten inspired the characterization of The Joker, played by Heath Ledger. According to Nolan, "We very much took the view in looking at the character of the Joker that what's strong about him is this idea of anarchy. This commitment to anarchy, this commitment to chaos."[205] Ledger's costar Christian Bale has claimed that Ledger drew inspiration from watching tapes of Vicious.[206]

[edit] Conceptual basis and the question of credit

The Sex Pistols were defined by ambitions that went well beyond the musical—indeed, McLaren was at times openly contemptuous of the band's music and punk rock generally. "Christ, if people bought the records for the music, this thing would have died a death long ago," he said in 1977.[207] The degree to which the Pistols' anti-establishment stance resulted from the members' spontaneous attitudes as opposed to being cultivated by McLaren and his associates is a matter of debate—as is the very nature of that stance itself. Deprecating the music, McLaren elevated the concept, for which he later took full credit. He would claim that the Sex Pistols were his personal, Situationist-style art project: "I decided to use people, just the way a sculptor uses clay."[33] But what had he supposedly made? The Sex Pistols were as substantial as pop culture could get: "Punk became the most important cultural phenomenon of the late 20th century", McLaren would later assert. "Its authenticity stands out against the karaoke ersatz culture of today, where everything and everyone is for sale.... [P]unk is not, and never was, for sale."[208] Or they were a cynical con: something with which "to sell trousers", as McLaren said in 1989;[209] a "carefully planned exercise to embezzle as much money as possible out of the music industry", as Jon Savage characterizes McLaren's core theme in The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle;[210] "cash from chaos" as the movie repeatedly puts it.[211]

Lydon, in turn, would dismiss McLaren's influence: "We made our own scandal just by being ourselves. Maybe it was that he knew he was redundant, so he overcompensated. All the talk about the French Situationists being associated with punk is bollocks. It's nonsense!"[212] Cook concurs: "Situationism had nothing to do with us. The Jamie Reids and Malcolms were excited because we were the real thing. I suppose we were what they were dreaming of."[213] According to Lydon, "If we had an aim, it was to force our own, working-class opinions into the mainstream, which was unheard of in pop music at the time."[159]

Toby Creswell argues that the "Sex Pistols' agenda was inchoate, to say the least. It was a general call to rebellion that falls apart at the slightest scrutiny."[200] Critic Ian Birch, writing in 1981, called "stupid" the claim that the Sex Pistols "had any political significance.... If they did anything, they made a lot of people content with being nothing. They certainly didn't inspire the working classes."[214] While the Conservative triumph in 1979 may be taken as evidence for that position, Julian Temple has noted that the scene inspired by the Sex Pistols "wasn't your kind of two-up, two-down working class normal families, most of it. It was over the edge of the precipice in social terms. They were actually giving a voice to an area of the working class that was almost beyond the pale."[215] Within a year of "Anarchy in the U.K." that voice was being echoed widely: scores if not hundreds of punk bands had formed across the country—groups composed largely of working-class members or middle-class members who rejected their own class values and pursued solidarity with the working class.[216]

In 1980, critic Greil Marcus reflected on McLaren's contradictory posture:

It may be that in the mind of their self-celebrated Svengali...the Sex Pistols were never meant to be more than a nine-month wonder, a cheap vehicle for some fast money, a few laughs, a touch of the old épater la bourgeoisie. It may also be that in the mind of their chief terrorist and propagandist, anarchist veteran...and Situational artist McLaren, the Sex Pistols were meant to be a force that would set the world on its ear...and finally unite music and politics. The Sex Pistols were all of these things.[217]

A couple of years before, Marcus had identified different roots underlying the band's merger of music and politics, arguing that they "have absorbed from reggae and the Rastas the idea of a culture that will make demands on those in power which no government could ever satisfy; a culture that will be exclusive, almost separatist, yet also messianic, apocalyptic and stoic, and that will ignore or smash any contradiction inherent in such a complexity of stances."[134] Critic Sean Campbell has discussed how Lydon's Irish Catholic heritage both facilitated his entrée into London's reggae scene and complicated his position vis-à-vis the ethnically English working class—the background his bandmates had in common.[218]

Critic Bill Wyman acknowledges that Lydon's "fierce intelligence and astonishing onstage charisma" were important catalysts, but ultimately finds the band's real meaning lies in McLaren's provocative media manipulations.[175] While some of the Sex Pistols' public affronts were plotted by McLaren, Westwood, and company, others were evidently not—including what McLaren himself cites as the "pivotal moment that changed everything",[208] the clash on the Bill Grundy Today show.[219] "Malcolm milked situations", says Cook, "he didn't instigate them; that was always our own doing."[220] It is also hard to ascribe the effect of the Sex Pistols' early Manchester shows on that city's nascent punk scene to anyone other than the musicians themselves. Matlock later wrote that at the point when he left the band, it was beginning to occur to him that McLaren "was in fact quite deliberately perpetrating that idea of us as his puppets.... However, on the other hand, I've since found out that even Malcolm wasn't as aware of what he was up to as he has since made out."[221] By his absence, Matlock demonstrated how crucial he was to the band's creativity: in the eleven months between his departure and the Pistols' demise, they composed only two songs.[222]

Johnny Rotten wearing a Westwood-designed "Destroy" T-shirt, echoing Rotten's yawp at the end of "Anarchy in the U.K."[223]

Music historian Simon Reynolds argues that McLaren came into his own as an auteur only after the group's breakup, with The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle and the recruitment of Ronnie Biggs as a vocalist.[33] Much subsequent commentary on the Sex Pistols has relied on taking seriously McLaren's onscreen proclamations in the film, whether lending them credence or not. As music journalist Dave Thompson noted in 2000, "[T]oday, Swindle is viewed by many as the truth"[224] (despite the fact that the movie purveys, among other things, a completely illiterate Steve Jones, a talking dog, and Sid Vicious shooting audience members, including his mother, at the conclusion of "My Way"). Temple points out that McLaren's characterization was intended as "a big fucking joke—that he was the puppetmeister who created these pieces of clay from plasticine boxes that he modeled away and made Johnny Rotten, made Sid Vicious. It was a joke that they were completely manufactured."[225] (In his final onscreen scene in the film, McLaren declares that he was planning the Sex Pistols affair, "Ever since I was ten years old! Ever since Elvis Presley joined the army!" [1956 and 1958, respectively].)[226] Temple acknowledges that McLaren ultimately "perhaps took this too much to heart."[227]

According to Pistols tour manager Noel Monk and journalist Jimmy Guterman, Lydon was much more than "the band's mouthpiece. He's its raging brain. McLaren or his friend Jamie Reid might drop a word like 'anarchy' or 'vacant' that Rotten seizes upon and turns into a manifesto, but McLaren is not the Svengali to Rotten he'd like to be perceived as. McLaren thought he was working with a tabula rasa, but he soon found out that Rotten has ideas of his own".[228] On the other hand, there is little disagreement about McLaren's marketing talent and his crucial role in making the band a subcultural phenomenon soon after its debut.[175][229] Temple adds that "he catalyzed so many people's heads. He had so many just extraordinary ideas".[230] Though, as Jon Savage emphasizes, "In fact, it was Steve Jones who first had the idea of putting the group, or any group, together with McLaren. He chose McLaren, not vice versa."[231]

[edit] Members

  • Johnny Rotten – lead vocals (1975–1978, 1996–present)
  • Steve Jones – guitar, bass (studio), backing vocals (1975–1978, 1996–present)
  • Paul Cook – drums (1975–1978, 1996–present)
  • Glen Matlock – bass, backing vocals (1975–1977, 1996–present)

[edit] Former member

[edit] Post-Rotten "Sex Pistols" singers

Lead vocalists, other than Johnny Rotten, on The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle tracks credited to the Sex Pistols:

[edit] Discography

[edit] Studio album

[edit] Compilations, live albums and other official releases

[edit] Singles

  • from Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols
  • from The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle
  • from Kiss This
    • September 1992 - "Anarchy in the U.K." (reissue) #33 UK
    • December 1992 - "Pretty Vacant" (reissue) #56 UK
  • from Filthy Lucre Live
    • June 1996 - "Pretty Vacant" (live) #18 UK
  • from Jubilee
    • 27 May 2002 - "God Save the Queen" (reissue) #15 UK
  • from Never Mind the Bollocks, Here's the Sex Pistols—30th Anniversary Edition
    • 1 October 2007 - "Anarchy in the U.K." (2nd reissue) #70 UK
    • 8 October 2007 - "God Save the Queen" (2nd reissue) #42 UK
    • 15 October 2007 - "Pretty Vacant" (2nd reissue) #65 UK
    • 22 October 2007 - "Holidays in the Sun" (reissue) #74 UK

[edit] Sources

  • Albiez, Sean, "Print the Truth, Not the Legend. The Sex Pistols: Lesser Free Trade Hall, Manchester, June 4, 1976", in Performance and Popular Music: History, Place and Time, ed. Ian Inglis, pp. 92–106. Ashgate, 2006. ISBN 0754640574
  • Campbell, Sean, "Sounding Out the Margins: Ethnicity and Popular Music in British Cultural Studies", in Across the Margins: Cultural Identity and Change in the Atlantic Archipelago, ed. Glenda Norquay and Gerry Smyth, pp. 117–136. Manchester University Press, 2002. ISBN 0719057493
  • Creswell, Toby, 1001 Songs: The Great Songs of All Time and the Artists, Stories and Secrets Behind Them, Thunder's Mouth Press, 2006. ISBN 1560259159
  • Douglas, Mark, "Fashions, Youth", in Encyclopedia of Contemporary British Culture, ed. Peter Childs and Mike Storry, pp. 187-189. Taylor & Francis, 1999. ISBN 0415147263
  • Evans, Mike, Rock 'n' Roll's Strangest Moments: Extraordinary Tales from Over Fifty Years of Rock Music History, Robson, 2006. ISBN 186105923X
  • Gimarc, George, Punk Diary: The Ultimate Trainspotter's Guide to Underground Rock, 1970–1982, Hal Leonard, 2005. ISBN 0879308486
  • Green, Alex. The Stone Roses, Continuum, 2006. ISBN 0826417426
  • Harris, John. Britpop!: Cool Britannia and the Spectacular Demise of English Rock, Da Capo , 2004. ISBN 030681367X
  • Hatch, David, and Stephen Millward, From Blues to Rock: An Analytical History of Pop Music, Manchester University Press, 1989. ISBN 0719023491
  • Henry, Tricia, Break All Rules!: Punk Rock and the Making of a Style, University of Michigan Press, 1989. ISBN 0835719804
  • Howard, David N., Sonic Alchemy: Visionary Music Producers and Their Maverick Recordings, Hal Leonard, 2004. ISBN 0634055607
  • Lydon, John, with Keith and Kent Zimmerman, Rotten: No Irish, No Blacks, No Dogs, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2008 [1994]. ISBN 0312428138
  • Matlock, Glen, with Pete Silverton, I Was A Teenage Sex Pistol, Omnibus Press, 1990. ISBN 0711918171
  • Marsh, Dave, "The Sex Pistols", in The New Rolling Stone Record Guide, ed. Dave Marsh and John Swenson, p. 456. Random House/Rolling Stone Press, 1983. ISBN 0394721071
  • McNeil, Legs, and Gillian McCain (ed.), Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk, Grove Press, 1996. ISBN 0349108803
  • Molon, Dominic, "Made with the Highest British Attention to the Wrong Detail: The UK", in Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock and Roll Since 1967, ed. Dominic Molon, pp. 72–79. Yale University Press, 2007. ISBN 0300134266
  • Monk, Noel, and Jimmy Guterman, 12 Days on the Road: The Sex Pistols and America, Harper Paperbacks, 1992. ISBN 0688112749
  • Mulholland, Neil, The Cultural Devolution: Art in Britain in the Late Twentieth Century, Ashgate, 2003. ISBN 075460392X
  • Pardo, Alona, "Jamie Reid", in Communicate: Independent British Graphic Design Since the Sixties, ed. Rick Poyner, p. 245. Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 030010684X
  • Paytress, Mark, Siouxsie & the Banshees: The Authorised Biography, Sanctuary, 2003. ISBN 1860743757
  • Raimes, Jonathan, Lakshmi Bhaskaran, and Ben Renow-Clarke, Retro Graphics: A Visual Sourcebook to 100 Years of Graphic Design, Chronicle Books, 2007. ISBN 0811855082
  • Reynolds, Simon, Rip It Up and Start Again: Post Punk 1978–1984, Faber and Faber, 2006. ISBN 057121570X
  • Reynolds, Simon, "Ono, Eno, Arto: Nonmusicians and the Emergence of Concept Rock", in Sympathy for the Devil: Art and Rock and Roll Since 1967, ed. Dominic Molon, pp. 80–91. Yale University Press, 2007. ISBN 0300134266
  • Robb, John, Punk Rock: An Oral History, Ebury Press, 2006. ISBN 0091905117
  • Robbins, Ira, "Sex Pistols", in The Trouser Press Record Guide, 4th ed., ed. Ira Robbins, pp. 585–586, Collier, 1991. ISBN 0020363613
  • Salewicz, Chris, Interview with Julien Temple by Chris Salewicz (The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle DVD bonus feature), Shout! Factory, 2001. ISBN 0738931993
  • Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming: Anarchy, Sex Pistols, Punk Rock and Beyond, St. Martin's Press, 1992. ISBN 0312087748
  • Southall, Brian, The Sex Pistols: 90 Days At EMI, Omnibus Press, 2007. ISBN 9781846097799
  • Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant: A History of UK Punk, Chicago Review Press, 2008. ISBN 1556527527
  • Taylor, Steven, False Prophet: Fieldnotes from the Punk Underground, Wesleyan University Press, 2004. ISBN 0819566683
  • Temple, Julian, The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle (DVD), Shout! Factory, 1980 (2001). ISBN 0738931993
  • Temple, Julian, with Chris Salewicz, "Commentary on The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle" (The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle DVD bonus feature), Shout! Factory, 2001. ISBN 0738931993
  • Thompson, Dave, Alternative Rock, Hal Leonard, 2000. ISBN 0879306076
  • Vermorel, Fred, and Judy Vermorel, Sex Pistols: The Inside Story, Omnibus Press, 1987 [1978]. ISBN 0711910901
  • Wall, Mick, W.A.R.: The Unauthorized Biography of William Axl Rose, Macmillan, 2008. ISBN 0312377673

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ a b "Sex Pistols". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Retrieved 11 October 2006.
  2. ^ a b O'Hagan, Sean (2 May 2004). "Fifty Years of Pop". The Observer. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  3. ^ Sprague, David (24 February 2006). "Sex Pistols Flip Off Hall of Fame". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Olsson, Mats (23 July 1977). "Sex Pistols". Expressen. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  5. ^ Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, pp. 77–79; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 84.
  6. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 87; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 96.
  7. ^ Bell-Price, Shannon (2006). "Vivienne Westwood and the Postmodern Legacy of Punk Style". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 7 October 2006.
  8. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 83.
  9. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 83–84, 86–87, 89, 102, 105.
  10. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 84.
  11. ^ Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, pp. 70–80.
  12. ^ Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, pp. 83, 92; Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 83–89, 102–105.
  13. ^ Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, pp. 87–90, 92, 97.
  14. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 84–85.
  15. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 85–86.
  16. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 93; Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, pp. 98–99.
  17. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 110.
  18. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 93–94; Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, p. 99.
  19. ^ a b c d Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 74.
  20. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 114.
  21. ^ a b Young, Charles M. (20 October 1977). "Rock Is Sick and Living in London". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 10 October 2006.
  22. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 110–111; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 120; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 98.
  23. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 120–121; Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 71.
  24. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 97. See also Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 108–112. Savage notes that the July 1975 unemployment figures were the worst since World War II (p. 108).
  25. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 78. See also Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, pp. 57–59.
  26. ^ Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 86.
  27. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 125–126.
  28. ^ Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 87.
  29. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 112; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 105.
  30. ^ Evans, Mike, Rock 'n' Roll's Strangest Moments, p. 190; Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, pp. 64–65. Matlock says the band decided on the name while McLaren was in the United States—no later than May 1975—before Rotten even joined (p. 65). Jon Savage says the name was not firmly settled on until just before their first show in November 1975 (England's Dreaming, p. 129).
  31. ^ Molon, Dominic, "Made with the Highest British Attention", p. 76.
  32. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 99–100.
  33. ^ a b c Reynolds, Simon, "Ono, Eno, Arto", p. 89.
  34. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 22; Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 114; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 129.
  35. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 106; Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 114–120; Robb, John (5 November 2005). "The Birth of Punk". The Independent. Retrieved 15 October 2006. Strongman says that Rotten was pinned to the wall by Bazooka Joe's Danny Kleinman; after an apology, the Pistols continued playing for a few more minutes. Robb describes a brief fistfight that took place after the plugs were pulled.
  36. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, pp. 172–189 ("Steve Severin on the Bromley Contingent"); "The Bromley Contingent". Retrieved 9 October 2006.
  37. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 181–185.
  38. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 86, 197; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 27–42, 204; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 67–75.
  39. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 201–202.
  40. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 86; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 201; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 111.
  41. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 204–205.
  42. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 151.
  43. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 114. For more on Lydon's apparently coincidental resemblance to Hell, see also Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 71, and Matlock and Pirroni quotes in Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 111–112, 183.
  44. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 147–148.
  45. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 148.
  46. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 163–166.
  47. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 174.
  48. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 153.
  49. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 155.
  50. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 166–167. See also Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 107.
  51. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 168.
  52. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 172.
  53. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 118.
  54. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 182.
  55. ^ a b Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 30.
  56. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 160–162; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 173–174.
  57. ^ a b "Sex Pistols Gig: The Truth". BBC. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  58. ^ Morley, Paul (21 May 2006). "A Northern Soul". Observer Music Monthly.,,1777016,00.html. Retrieved 20 September 2006.
  59. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 199–201.
  60. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 204.
  61. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 118–119; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 205.
  62. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 207–209; Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 212–215. Quote: Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 207.
  63. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 126–129.
  64. ^ a b Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 37.
  65. ^ "Sex Pistols Appear on 'So It Goes'". BBC. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
  66. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 38.
  67. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 135; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 317. Quote: Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 39.
  68. ^ Coon, Caroline (2 October 1976), "Parade Of The Punks", Melody Maker; Ingham, Jonh (31 July 1976). "Sex Pistols/Buzzcocks—Lesser Free Trade Hall, Manchester". Sounds. Jonh Ingham—My Back Pages. Retrieved 19 March 2009. Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 176–177, 206, 208; Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 119, 156, 162.
  69. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 177.
  70. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 241.
  71. ^ a b Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 245.
  72. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 144–148.
  73. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 257–258.
  74. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 258.
  75. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 221.
  76. ^ Hatch, David, and Stephen Millward, From Blues to Rock, pp. 168, 170.
  77. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 253.
  78. ^ Pardo, Alona, "Jamie Reid", p. 245.
  79. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 151–153; Southall, Brian, The Sex Pistols, p. 52; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 257–259. Savage's transcription, unlike Strongman's, Southall's, and the one that appears on the cover of the Daily Mirror, incorrectly has Grundy saying "ten seconds" and Jones saying "You fucking rotter." The transcription has been checked against the excerpted video of the interview available on the band's official website.
  80. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 260.
  81. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 264. See also Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 157.
  82. ^ "Manchester Celebrities: Bill Grundy". Manchester 2002. 2002. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  83. ^ Robb, John, Punk Diary, pp. 263–273; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 267–275.
  84. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 45.
  85. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 49. The transcription of the television interview has been corrected per the documentary footage used in The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle (28:36–28:55).
  86. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 286.
  87. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 286–288.
  88. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 172.
  89. ^ a b c Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 56.
  90. ^ McKenna, Kristine (2005). "Q&A with Steve Jones". Rhino Magazine. Retrieved 3 October 2006. See also later Lydon quote: Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 307–308.
  91. ^ Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, pp. 113–119, 162, 167–171. Quote: p. 115.
  92. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 3. See also pp. 82, 103.
  93. ^ a b Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 308.
  94. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 159–160; Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 130.
  95. ^ Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 176.
  96. ^ a b Blood on the Turntable: The Sex Pistols (dir. Steve Crabtree), BBC documentary (2004).
  97. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, pp. 217, 224–225; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 137–138.
  98. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 116–117; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 177–178.
  99. ^ For the sort of thing in Kent's past for which he arguably "deserved" a beating—physically assaulting his then-girlfriend Chrissie Hynde at the McLaren-Westwood shop—see Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, pp. 59–60; Strongman , Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 116.
  100. ^ a b c d e Robinson, Charlotte (2006). "So Tough: The Boy Behind the Sid Vicious Myth". PopMatters. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
  101. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 143. For a view that Vicious was a more competent bas player than his reputation would have it, see Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 117.
  102. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 222.
  103. ^ McNeil, Legs, and Gillian McCain, Please Kill Me, p. 262; Monk, Noel, and Jimmy Guterman, 12 Days on the Road, p. 124.
  104. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 147.
  105. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 174; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 315–318.
  106. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 318–320.
  107. ^ "Sex Pistols Cover Tops Chart". BBC. 14 March 2001. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  108. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, pp. 59–60.
  109. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 347, 349; Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 348.
  110. ^ a b Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 70; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 349.
  111. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 347–367.
  112. ^ Petridis, Alexis (12 April 2002). "Leaders of the Banned". Guardian.,,735307,00.html. Retrieved 22 September 2006.
  113. ^ a b Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 70.
  114. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 358–364; Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, pp. 181–182.
  115. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 364–365; Leigh, Spencer (20 February 1998). "Music: Charting the Number Ones That Somehow Got Away". The Independent. Retrieved 18 March 2009. .
  116. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 365–366.
  117. ^ Rockwell, John (7 August 1977), "The Sex Pistols: A Fired-Up Rock Band", New York Times.
  118. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 390–392.
  119. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 339–340.
  120. ^ Thompson, Stacy (winter 2004), "Punk Cinema", Cinema Journal 43, no. 2; "Jubilee Riverboat (1977)". BFI. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  121. ^ Savage, Jon. England's Dreaming, pp. 379–380, 388–389, 413–414.
  122. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 409.
  123. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 200.
  124. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 414.
  125. ^ Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Pistol, pp. 170–171.
  126. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 309.
  127. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 142. See also p. 200.
  128. ^ a b Howard, David, Sonic Alchemy, p. 245.
  129. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 200. Jones also recalls Vicious showing up to record for "God Save the Queen". Lydon reports recording an unused version of "Submission" with Vicious (pp. 142–143).
  130. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 126–127; Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 359; Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 74.
  131. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 95.
  132. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 556.
  133. ^ a b Taylor, Steven, False Prophet, p. 69.
  134. ^ a b Nelson, Paul (23 February 1978). "Never Mind the Bollocks Here's the Sex Pistols (album review)". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  135. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 414; Ott, Chris (2004). "051: Sex Pistols Never Mind the Bollocks (Top 100 Albums of the 1970s)". Pitchfork. Retrieved 20 March 2009.
  136. ^ a b Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 415.
  137. ^ Thompson, Dave, Alternative Rock, p. 609; de Jongh, Nicholas (10 November 1977). "Punk Record Is a Load of Legal Trouble". Guardian.,,106929,00.html. Retrieved 31 March 2009.
  138. ^ Vermorel, Fred, and Judy Vermorel, Sex Pistols, p. 113.
  139. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 202.
  140. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 428–429.
  141. ^ Robb, John, Punk Rock, p. 403.
  142. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 430.
  143. ^ a b Huey, Steve (2005). "Sid Vicious: Biography". VH1. Retrieved 7 October 2006.
  144. ^ a b Lydon, John, Rotten, pp. 244.
  145. ^ Klein, Howie (February 1978), "Sex Pistols: Tour Notes", New York Rocker.
  146. ^ Vermorel, Fred, and Judy Vermorel, Sex Pistols, p. 120.
  147. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, pp. 5, 247–248.
  148. ^ Cooper, Mark (28 January 1978), "The Sex Pistols: Winterland, San Francisco", Record Mirror. The transcription has been slightly expanded per the documentary footage used in The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle (1:09:55–1:10:31). The sound cuts out immediately after the word "cheated".
  149. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 5.
  150. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 463–464.
  151. ^ Das, Lina (2006). "Jolly Rotten". Daily Mail Weekend Magazine. Retrieved 4 October 2006.
  152. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 464.
  153. ^ Reynolds, Simon, Rip It Up and Start Again, pp. 80–81.
  154. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 145. Gimarc refers to sources claiming that the "My Way" recording involved no contact between Vicious and the Jones-Cook duo; Temple, however, says that Jones was flown over to Paris to join Vicious in the studio (Temple, Julian, "Commentary", 1:29:18–1:29:20), and seems to indicate that he recorded his guitar part there (1:33:09–1:33:16).
  155. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 497–498. Savage describes the single as being a double A-side; other sources indicate that the Biggs vocal was the A-side and the Vicious vocal the B-side (e.g., Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 145). There is no disagreement that the Vicious side was the more popular.
  156. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 491–494, 497–503. For the management termination, see also Temple, Julian, "Commentary", 1:30:38–1:30:51.
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  167. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 558–559; Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, pp. 145, 188, 196, 217.
  168. ^ Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, p. 405; Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, pp. 501, 560.
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  211. ^ The line, which became known as a catchphrase of McLaren's, appears in the lyric of the title track (credited to Jones, Cook and Temple) (6:59–7:02); as a motto on a conveniently placed coat of arms (21:30–21:36); and in large letters on a T-shirt won by McLaren in several scenes (first fully visible: 26:26–26:51; partly visible in three subsequent scenes). See also Temple's script for the film's promotional video: Gimarc, George, Punk Diary, pp. 328–329.
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  213. ^ Lydon, John, Rotten, p. 186.
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  217. ^ Hatch, David, and Stephen Millward, From Blues to Rock, p. 170.
  218. ^ Campbell, Sean, "Sounding Out the Margins", pp. 127–130.
  219. ^ See, for instance, Temple's commentary: "[It] was not planned at all. It was totally spontaneous. And as the band will tell you, Malcolm said, 'You've blown it. You've ruined everything I've worked for'" (Temple, Julian, "Commentary", 27:26–27:33); and Matlock's confirmation (Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, pp. 145, 147). Concerning the time the band spent waiting to go on air, Siouxsie Sioux later said, "I've got a feeling that Malcolm was geeing them up, stirring it a bit" (Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 257). Her view is belied by the version of the incident in Phil Strongman's Pretty Vacant, which appears to rely on McLaren himself (pp. 154–155). According to Strongman, McLaren "was inconsolable" (p. 154).
  220. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 338.
  221. ^ Matlock, Glen, I Was a Teenage Sex Pistol, p. 170.
  222. ^ Strongman, Phil, Pretty Vacant, p. 198.
  223. ^ Martin, Penny et al. (21 April 2004). "In Camera: Vivienne Westwood". SHOWstudio. Retrieved 22 March 2009. Celestial, Miguel Paolo (17 October 2007). "How Punk Lost Its Funk". Philippine Star. Retrieved 22 March 2009.
  224. ^ Thompson, Dave, Alternative Rock, p. 135.
  225. ^ Temple, Julian, "Commentary", 1:24–1:40.
  226. ^ Temple, Julian, The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle, 1:12:54–1:13:02.
  227. ^ Temple, Julian, "Commentary", 1:20–1:23.
  228. ^ Monk, Noel, and Jimmy Guterman, 12 Days on the Road, pp. 76–77.
  229. ^ Monk, Noel, and Jimmy Guterman, 12 Days on the Road, p. 77.
  230. ^ Temple, Julian, "Commentary", 37:03–37:09.
  231. ^ Savage, Jon, England's Dreaming, p. 71.

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